What is Sapphire?


Sapphire is a variety of the mineral corundum that is typically blue but can also come in various other colors except red. It’s primarily found in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Madagascar. Sapphire has been used for centuries as a gemstone and is a popular choice for jewelry due to its beautiful colors and spiritual significance.

Sapphire is a colorful gemstone that belongs to the corundum family. Its wide range of colors and lustrous appearance make it a popular choice for jewelry and decorative items. The stone is often used in rings, necklaces, and pendants, and is sometimes used to make beads.

Gemstone Properties

Chemical ClassificationInorganic - Oxide (Corundum)
ColorWhile blue is the most well-known color, sapphires can be violet, green, yellow, orange, pink, and even colorless.
TransparencyTransparent to translucent.
OccurrenceMyanmar (Burma), Sri Lanka, and Madagascar.
FormationTypically found in metamorphic rocks and in igneous rocks.
Mohs Hardness9
Specific GravityApproximately 3.95 to 4.03.
Diagnostic PropertiesHardness, various colors except red.
Chemical CompositionAl2O3
PleochroismDichroic in most varieties.
Crystal SystemTrigonal (variety of Corundum)
Optical PropertiesUniaxial (-)
Refractive Index1.762 - 1.770
Birefringence0.008 - 0.009
2V angleNot applicable (isometric)